Akademia Nauk Stosowanych
im. Alcide De Gasperi
BOOK CHAPTER (271-286)
Human rights in relation to LGBTI people in the light of the modern public international law
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Subject of research: The purpose of scientific research is to analyze human rights issues that affect LGBTI people. The jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights and the Amnesty International reports, which largely determines the general trend of recommendations for states that should introduce anti-discriminatory regulations and take legislative action to harmonize and introduce legislation, issues of rights for LGBTI people. LGBTI people insist on not discriminating against their sexual orientation in every sphere of national life, just at the national level. In some cases, the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms has proved very effective in the case-law of the Commission on Human Rights and the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, and has had an impact on the subsequent revision of national legislation. We now have to think that we are just one step away from changing the case line and setting common European standards on sexual orientation. Undoubtedly, the topic discussed will be problematic for a long time. The reason for this is the cultural differences that occur in European countries, as well as the fact that issues related to family and marriages belong to the exclusive competence of the states. Purpose of research: The jurisprudence of international bodies dealing with the protection of human rights affects the shape of the legal regulations of countries under the jurisdiction of these authorities (international courts or tribunals). Amnesty International reports contribute to increasing awareness of human rights violations, aiming at enhancing the respect for human rights in the monitored countries. The development of the fourth generation of human rights is the goal of ensuring non-discrimination against sexual minorities in relation to those for heterosexuals.
Amnesty International Report 2016/2017 The State of the World’s Human Rights,, page access date: 04 May 2017.
Burek W. (2009).Interpretacja ewolucyjna Europejskiej Konwencji Praw Człowieka na przykładzie orzecznictwa w sprawach sytuacji prawnej transseksualistów pooperacyjnych, Prawo i Medycyna, No 1/2007 (26, vol. 9), Warszawa.
Balzer C.,Hutta J.S. (opracowanie) (2011)., Tożsamość płciowa a prawa człowieka, Rio de Janeiro, Warszawa, January 2011, thematic paper by Thomas Hammarberg, Commissioner for Human Rights, Council of Europe, project publications Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide (TvT), volume 3,.
http://www.transrespect-transp..., access date: 21 May 2017.
Johnson, P. and Vanderbeck, R. M. (2017), Sexual Orientation Equality and Religious Exceptionalism in the Law of the United Kingdom: The Role of the Church of England, April 25, 2017, available at SSRN: or, access date: 04 May 2017.
Kasprzak H., Kopczuk J. (2009). Monitoring praw człowieka: teoria i praktyka, w: Prawa człowieka. Wybrane zagadnienia i Problemy, red. L. Koba, W. Wacławczyk, Warszawa, pp. 576-592.
Nowicki M. A. (2013). Wokół Konwencji Europejskiej. Komentarz do Europejskiej Konwencji Praw Człowieka. 6. Wydanie, Warszawa.
Nowicki M., Fialova Z. (2000), Monitoring praw człowieka, Helsińska Fundacja Praw Człowieka, Warszawa.
Osajda K. (2009), Orzecznictwo ETPCz dotyczące transseksualizmu, Europejski Przegląd Sądowy, 2009/05.
University of Minnesota, Training Manual on Human Rights Monitoring,, acces date: 04 May 2017.
University of Minnesota, Training Manual on Human Rights Monitoring, point 27,, access date: 04 May 2017.
Zago G., Oliari and Others v. Italy: a stepping stone towards full legal recognition of same-sex relationships in Europe September 16, 2015, source:, access date: 28 April 2017.
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